All evidence suggests that early identification is key to overcoming dyslexia. Still, we consistently encounter students who aren’t identified or diagnosed with dyslexia for years.
Why is that?
The challenge begins with elementary teachers who, charged with recognizing and acting on early symptoms, become gatekeepers of the initial diagnosis. This is a problem because they are often (a) overwhelmed by their other responsibilities and (b) underprepared to recognize the symptoms of dyslexia. Additionally, schools actually face disincentives to identifying dyslexia–a problem explored in a previous article.
Specifically, several misguided beliefs and attitudes can prevent otherwise wonderful teachers from taking steps towards a dyslexia diagnosis.
1. “He is trying so hard and I don’t want to discourage him!”
When teachers see a likable child who works hard and stays out of trouble, they too often hesitate to admit the depth and scope of his academic challenges. Nobody wants to tell a nice kid that he is failing, so these students are sometimes passed because of their good effort.
2. “She just isn’t applying herself!”
When a student is really gifted in some areas, rather than identify her with a learning disability, teachers may believe she is just not putting forth appropriate effort in reading. They think if the child would simply work harder, she would “get it,” when the real culprit is dyslexia.
3. “If only he’d pay attention!”
Students with dyslexia may have behavioral challenges due to auditory processing or executive function deficits. They also may misbehave to avoid the embarrassment of failing when reading aloud. If teachers assume reading difficulties are due to attention issues, dyslexia may go undiagnosed.
4. “She doesn’t reverse letters!”
While many students with dyslexia do have difficulty with reversals (writing or reading “b” for “d,” etc.), not all students do. If teachers believe this is the primary symptom to look for, they will not identify many dyslexic students.
5. “He does fine on his spelling tests!”
Too many schools use spelling programs that consist of memorizing lists of words for a final test at the end of the week. With a great deal of effort, many students with dyslexia can memorize how to spell those words. This does not translate into becoming a good speller, however, and masks the root causes of difficulty with spelling and writing.
6. “According to our assessment, she is on grade level!”
In a previous post, I detailed how this measure fails early readers. To summarize, too many schools equate students’ ability to read early reader books–which rely on predictable text, pictures, and high frequency words (which students can memorize)–with learning to read. A student may appear to be reading on grade level but is not actually learning to read.
7. “We tested for special education and he didn’t qualify!”
Schools generally cannot justify using federally allocated money to help struggling students until they have fallen far behind their peers in quantifiable ways. However, some students with dyslexia will not fall this far behind for years! While schools are waiting to essentially “build a case” that a student needs additional resources, that child is failing to receive the specialized instruction needed to master reading during the critical early education period.
Teacher education programs (especially in elementary education) do not prepare teachers to recognize dyslexia, let alone to teach students with dyslexia. Parents and educators who are aware of this problem are actively advocating to improve this situation, like our friends at Decoding Dyslexia. In the meantime, parents must be extra vigilant, assuring that their children are making adequate progress.
If you suspect that your child may be slipping through these cracks, I recommend you use this free screener we’ve developed, then call us at 1-888-461-3343 to talk about additional assessment and treatment options.
Edited 10/31/14: introduction changed to clarify that elementary teachers are not responsible for diagnosis or identification.
Since 2003, Tori has been a committed special educator, working as an elementary special education teacher. Her drive to improve outcomes for her students with dyslexia led her to the Neuhaus Education Center, where she was trained in Orton-Gillingham the summer after her first year of teaching. "I was so frustrated as a first year teacher, not knowing how to meet my students' needs. I spent the entire summer learning about dyslexia and was thrilled by my students' progress the next year!" Since then, she has used the method in English and Spanish with students in three states. In 2009, Tori completed her M.Ed. in Special Education at the Peabody College of Vanderbilt University, where she focused on educational strategies for students with learning disabilities. Tori joined the Lexercise team full-time in early 2014 after seeing students online for over a year. When she is not working, Tori loves to read, cook, garden, and spend as much time outdoors as possible.